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Open AccessReview
Foodborne Viruses and Innovative Non-Thermal Food-Processing Technologies
by and
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1520; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111520 (registering DOI) - 23 Oct 2020
Abstract
In recent years, several foodborne viruses’ outbreaks have been recorded worldwide. Μost of the foodborne viruses have a low infection dose, are stable and can persist and survive in foods for a long time without loss of infectivity. The most important foodborne viruses [...] Read more.
In recent years, several foodborne viruses’ outbreaks have been recorded worldwide. Μost of the foodborne viruses have a low infection dose, are stable and can persist and survive in foods for a long time without loss of infectivity. The most important foodborne viruses are: human norovirus (HuNoV), human rotavirus (HRV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis E virus (HEV), human astrovirus (HAstV), Aichi virus (AiV), sapovirus (SaV), human adenovirus (HAdV) and enterovirus (EV). In recent years, innovative non-thermal food-processing technologies including high-pressure processing (HPP), cold plasma (CP), ultraviolet light (UV), irradiation and pulsed electric field (PEF) for improving the quality and safety of foods, including foods of animal origin, have been under research. This review presents the recent data on foodborne viruses and reviews the innovative non-thermal technologies for the control of the foodborne viruses in foods. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Certificate-Of-Need Regulation and Healthcare Service Quality: Evidence from the Nursing Home Industry
by , , , and
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040423 (registering DOI) - 23 Oct 2020
Abstract
This quantitative study investigates the effect of certificate-of-need (CON) regulation on the quality of care in the nursing home industry. It uses county-level demographic data from the 48 contiguous US states that are extracted from the American Community Survey (ACS) and cover the [...] Read more.
This quantitative study investigates the effect of certificate-of-need (CON) regulation on the quality of care in the nursing home industry. It uses county-level demographic data from the 48 contiguous US states that are extracted from the American Community Survey (ACS) and cover the years 2012, 2013, and 2014. In doing so, it employs a new set of service quality variables captured from a variety of county-level data sources. Instrumental variables results indicate that health survey scores for nursing homes that are computed by healthcare professionals are about 18–24% lower, depending on the type of nursing home under consideration, in states with CON regulation. We also find that the presence of CON regulation leads to a substitution of lower-quality certified nursing assistant care for higher-quality licensed practical nurse care, regardless of the type of nursing home under consideration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Policy)
Open AccessArticle
Measuring the Uncertainty of Predictions in Deep Neural Networks with Variational Inference
by , and
Sensors 2020, 20(21), 6011; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20216011 (registering DOI) - 23 Oct 2020
Abstract
We present a novel approach for training deep neural networks in a Bayesian way. Compared to other Bayesian deep learning formulations, our approach allows for quantifying the uncertainty in model parameters while only adding very few additional parameters to be optimized. The proposed [...] Read more.
We present a novel approach for training deep neural networks in a Bayesian way. Compared to other Bayesian deep learning formulations, our approach allows for quantifying the uncertainty in model parameters while only adding very few additional parameters to be optimized. The proposed approach uses variational inference to approximate the intractable a posteriori distribution on basis of a normal prior. By representing the a posteriori uncertainty of the network parameters per network layer and depending on the estimated parameter expectation values, only very few additional parameters need to be optimized compared to a non-Bayesian network. We compare our approach to classical deep learning, Bernoulli dropout and Bayes by Backprop using the MNIST dataset. Compared to classical deep learning, the test error is reduced by 15%. We also show that the uncertainty information obtained can be used to calculate credible intervals for the network prediction and to optimize network architecture for the dataset at hand. To illustrate that our approach also scales to large networks and input vector sizes, we apply it to the GoogLeNet architecture on a custom dataset, achieving an average accuracy of 0.92. Using 95% credible intervals, all but one wrong classification result can be detected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Analysis for Smart Sensor Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Bioenergy Production from Different Wood Pellet Supply Chains
by , , , and
Forests 2020, 11(11), 1127; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11111127 (registering DOI) - 23 Oct 2020
Abstract
The EU is one of the largest producers and consumers of wood pellets in the world, covering around 36% of the global wood pellet production and around 50% of the global consumption in 2018. The EU wood pellet consumption is expected to further [...] Read more.
The EU is one of the largest producers and consumers of wood pellets in the world, covering around 36% of the global wood pellet production and around 50% of the global consumption in 2018. The EU wood pellet consumption is expected to further increase in response to the ambitious energy and climate goals for 2030. Currently, wood pellets are mainly produced from sawdust and other sawmill residues; however, other types of forest feedstock are being investigated in order to meet the increasing wood pellet demand and move toward greater energy independence. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the environmental impact of different wood pellet supply chains. A comparative cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment is performed considering the following wood feedstock systems: (i) sawdust from sawmill (S1), (ii) roundwood logs (S2), (iii) whole trees from forest thinning operation (S3), and (iv) logging residues produced during forest tree harvesting (S4). The study focuses on Global Warming Potential (GWP), Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP), Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential (POCP), and Human Toxicity Potential (HTP). Results show that S3 displays the lowest figures on all the environmental impact categories considered in this study. Compared to the reference case S1, S3 shows a GWP reduction of 46%, an ODP reduction of 6.6%, a POCP reduction of 14.8%, and HTP reduction of 13.2%. S3 and S4 have lower GWP than S1 and S2, even when the biogenic CO2 emissions are considered. Overall, the life cycle phases that have the highest GWP, POCP, and HTP are the burning phase and the preparation of the material to be pelletized, particularly the drying process. Nevertheless, the main phases that contribute to the ODP are the forest operations and the pellet preparation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Understanding Temporal Evolution of Electroluminescence Intensity in Lead Sulfide (PbS) Colloidal Quantum Dot Infrared Light-Emitting Diodes
by and
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7440; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217440 (registering DOI) - 23 Oct 2020
Abstract
We, for the first time, report a temporal evolution of the electroluminescence (EL) intensity in lead sulfide (PbS) colloidal quantum dot (CQD) infrared light-emitting diodes. The EL intensity was varied during infrared light emission, and its origin is attributed to competition between the [...] Read more.
We, for the first time, report a temporal evolution of the electroluminescence (EL) intensity in lead sulfide (PbS) colloidal quantum dot (CQD) infrared light-emitting diodes. The EL intensity was varied during infrared light emission, and its origin is attributed to competition between the achievement of charge balance associated with interfacial charging at the PbS/ZnO CQD interface and the electric-field induced luminescence quenching. The effect of multi-carrier emission on the enhanced EL intensity is discussed relating to shifting in the wavelength at the peak EL intensity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Storm-Related Rhodolith Deposits from the Upper Pleistocene and Recycled Coastal Holocene on Sal Island (Cabo Verde Archipelago)
by , and
Geosciences 2020, 10(11), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10110419 (registering DOI) - 23 Oct 2020
Abstract
This project examines the role of tropical storms in the northeast Atlantic Ocean related to the post-mortem deposition of rhodoliths in coastal settings during Neogene to Holocene time with primary emphasis on Sal Island in the Cabo Verde Archipelago located 600 km off [...] Read more.
This project examines the role of tropical storms in the northeast Atlantic Ocean related to the post-mortem deposition of rhodoliths in coastal settings during Neogene to Holocene time with primary emphasis on Sal Island in the Cabo Verde Archipelago located 600 km off the coast of Senegal in northwest Africa. Fossil rhodoliths from 10 to 15 cm in diameter are equal in size to contemporary rhodoliths that survive for a century or more at water depths undisturbed by all but the most energetic storms. The shape of large rhodoliths makes them susceptible to rare disturbances with sufficient energy to export them beyond their preferred habitat into extreme environments that include supratidal settings. The methodology of this study gauges the relative sphericity of rhodoliths based on measurements across three axes perpendicular to one another, plots size variations on bar graphs, and considers whether or not individual nodules are nucleated around rock cores eroded from proximal rocky shores. Sal Island is impacted on a steady basis by wave swell generated from the Northeast Trade Winds, but Pleistocene and Holocene deposits with large rhodoliths on the Island’s windward coast are interpreted as the result of major storms of hurricane intensity. Comparison of Sal Island rhodoliths with Pliocene and Miocene examples from other insular localities in the Northeast Atlantic considers evidence for displacement of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) into more northern latitudes as an influence on past hurricane tracks that are less common today. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geomorphological and Sedimentological Imprints of Storm Events)
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Open AccessArticle
Extraction, Characterization and Incorporation of Hypericum scruglii Extract in Ad Hoc Formulated Phospholipid Vesicles Designed for the Treatment of Skin Diseases Connected with Oxidative Stress
by , , , , , , , , , , , , and
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(11), 1010; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12111010 (registering DOI) - 23 Oct 2020
Abstract
An extract of Hypericum scruglii, an endangered endemic plant of Sardinia (Italy), was prepared and characterized. It was loaded in special phospholipid vesicles, glycerosomes, which were modified by adding maltodextrin (glucidex) and a polymer (gelatin or hyaluronan). The corresponding liposomes were also prepared [...] Read more.
An extract of Hypericum scruglii, an endangered endemic plant of Sardinia (Italy), was prepared and characterized. It was loaded in special phospholipid vesicles, glycerosomes, which were modified by adding maltodextrin (glucidex) and a polymer (gelatin or hyaluronan). The corresponding liposomes were also prepared and used as reference. The vesicles disclosed suitable physicochemical features for skin delivery. Indeed, their mean diameter ranged from 120 to 160 nm, they were homogeneously dispersed (polydispersity index ≤ 0.30), and their zeta potential was highly negative (~−45 mV). The vesicle dispersions maintained unchanged characteristics during 60 days of storage, were highly biocompatible, and were able to protect keratinocytes against damages due to oxidative stress induced by treating them with hydrogen peroxide. Vesicles were also capable of promoting cell proliferation and migration in vitro by means of a scratch wound assay. The results confirmed the fruitful delivery of the extract of H. scruglii in glycerosomes modified with glucidex and gelatin and their promising ability for skin protection and treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skin and Formulation)
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Open AccessEditorial
Introduction: The Making of S谩mi Religion in Contemporary Society
by and
Religions 2020, 11(11), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel11110547 (registering DOI) - 23 Oct 2020
Abstract
This Special Issue of Religions approaches “Sámi religion” from a long-term perspective seeing both the past religious practices and contemporary religious expressions as aspects of the same phenomena. This does not refer, however, to a focus on continuity or to a static or [...] Read more.
This Special Issue of Religions approaches “Sámi religion” from a long-term perspective seeing both the past religious practices and contemporary religious expressions as aspects of the same phenomena. This does not refer, however, to a focus on continuity or to a static or uniform understanding of Sámi religion. Sámi religion is an ambiguous concept that has to be understood as a pluralistic phenomenon consisting of multiple applications and associations and widely differing interpretations, and that highlights the complexities of processes of religion-making. In a historical perspective and in many contemporary contexts (such as museum displays, media stories, as well as educational programs) the term Sámi religion is mostly used as a reference to Sámi pre-Christian religious practices, to Laestadianism, a Lutheran revival movement that spread among the Sámi during the 19th Century, and last but not least to shamanism. In this issue, we particularly aim to look into contemporary contexts where Sámi religion is expressed, consumed, and promoted. We ask what role it plays in identity politics and heritagization processes, and how different actors connect with distant local religious pasts—in other words, in which contexts is Sámi religion activated, by whom, and for what? Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue S谩mi Religion: Religious Identities, Practices and Dynamics)
Open AccessArticle
Low Power SAR ADC Design with Digital Background Calibration Algorithm
by , , and
Symmetry 2020, 12(11), 1757; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12111757 (registering DOI) - 23 Oct 2020
Abstract
This paper proposed a digital background calibration algorithm with positive and negative symmetry error tolerance to remedy the capacitor mismatch for successive approximation register analog-to-digital converters (SAR ADCs). Compensate for the errors caused by capacitor mismatches and improve the ADC performance. Combination with [...] Read more.
This paper proposed a digital background calibration algorithm with positive and negative symmetry error tolerance to remedy the capacitor mismatch for successive approximation register analog-to-digital converters (SAR ADCs). Compensate for the errors caused by capacitor mismatches and improve the ADC performance. Combination with a tri-level switching scheme based on the common-mode voltage Vcm to achieve capacitor reduction and high switching energy efficiency. The proposed calibration algorithm significantly improves capacitor mismatch without resorting to extensive computation or dedicated circuits. The active area is 0.046 mm2 in 40 nm Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The post-simulation results show the effective number of bits (ENOB) improves from 8.23 bits to 11.36 bits, signal-to-noise-and distortion ratio (SNDR) improves from 51.33 dB to 70.15 dB, respectively, before and after calibration. This improves the spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) by 24.13 dB, from 61.50 dB up to 85.63 dB. The whole ADC’s power consumption is only 0.3564 mW at sampling rate fs =2 MS/s and Nyquist input frequency, with a figure-of-merit (FOM) 67.8 fJ/conv.-step. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Computer and Engineer Science and Symmetry)
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Open AccessArticle
Wound Healing Effects of Aloe muth-muth: In Vitro Investigations Using Immortalized Human Keratinocytes (HaCaT)
by , , , and
Biology 2020, 9(11), 350; - 23 Oct 2020
Abstract
The traditional use of Aloe spp. for the purpose of wound healing has a long history and is widespread internationally. Recently, a hybrid aloe plant (Aloe muth-muth) has been cultivated by cross pollination between Aloe vera and Aloe ferox. The [...] Read more.
The traditional use of Aloe spp. for the purpose of wound healing has a long history and is widespread internationally. Recently, a hybrid aloe plant (Aloe muth-muth) has been cultivated by cross pollination between Aloe vera and Aloe ferox. The Aloe muth-muth plant has not yet been investigated for medicinal properties and provides an opportunity for potential biological activity, including wound healing. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro wound healing effects of both Aloe muth-muth gel and whole leaf material with the use of the immortalized human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cell line. Cell viability was conducted using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assays. In vitro wound healing was tested on HaCaT cells using an established scratch assay method. The effect of Aloe muth-muth gel material on HaCaT cell migration was also investigated. Aloe muth-muth gel material exhibited statistically significantly (p < 0.05) higher percentage wound closure compared to the control at all three concentrations investigated. These findings confirm that this newly cultivated species, Aloe muth-muth, also possesses wound healing activity corresponding to that reported for the two species it is derived from, namely, Aloe vera and Aloe ferox. Therefore, Aloe muth-muth has the potential to be used in future wound therapeutics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivity of Medicinal Plants and Extracts)
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Open AccessArticle
The Comparison of Semen Collection in Electroejaculation, Rectal Massage and Combination of Both Methods in the Critically Endangered Malayan Pangolin, Manis javanica
by , , , and
Animals 2020, 10(11), 1948; - 23 Oct 2020
Abstract
This article describes the semen characteristics from different collection methods between captive and confiscated Malayan pangolins, Manis javanica. Semen was collected from 15 pangolins; two captive and 13 confiscated individuals at the mean weight of 9.36 ± 1.94 kg. The three semen [...] Read more.
This article describes the semen characteristics from different collection methods between captive and confiscated Malayan pangolins, Manis javanica. Semen was collected from 15 pangolins; two captive and 13 confiscated individuals at the mean weight of 9.36 ± 1.94 kg. The three semen collection methods employed were electroejaculation, rectal massage and a combination of both techniques. The semen characteristics (mean ± standard deviation) of the Malayan pangolin are volume (73.75 ± 144.57 µL), pH (7.63 ± 0.53), spermatozoa concentration (997.19 ± 728.98 × 106 /mL), total motility (59.60% ± 30.00%), progressive motility (48.95% ± 30.93%), mass motility (3.50 ± 1.50) and live spermatozoa (80.25% ± 13.45%). There was no significant difference in semen characteristics between the three collection methods. The percentages of live spermatozoa were significantly different, suggesting better samples from captive compared to confiscated animals. However, there was no significant difference in spermatozoa kinetics between the captive and confiscated samples, suggesting the potential of utilizing confiscated individuals for gamete recovery to conserve the genetic pool of pangolins. All three methods of semen collection were successfully performed in pangolins and should be considered; however, electroejaculation remains the most consistent method of obtaining semen from the species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reproductive Biotechnology in Wildlife)
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Open AccessArticle
The Central Negative Regulator of Flooding Tolerance, the PROTEOLYSIS 6 Branch of the N-degron Pathway, Adversely Modulates Salinity Tolerance in Arabidopsis
by , , and
Plants 2020, 9(11), 1415; - 23 Oct 2020
Abstract
Seawater intrusion in coastal regions and waterlogging in salinized lands are serious constraints that reduce crop productivity under changing climate scenarios. Under these conditions, plants encounter flooding and salinity concurrently or sequentially. Identification and characterization of genes and pathways associated with both flooding [...] Read more.
Seawater intrusion in coastal regions and waterlogging in salinized lands are serious constraints that reduce crop productivity under changing climate scenarios. Under these conditions, plants encounter flooding and salinity concurrently or sequentially. Identification and characterization of genes and pathways associated with both flooding and salinity adaptation are critical steps for the simultaneous improvement of plant tolerance to these stresses. The PROTEOLYSIS 6 (PRT6) branch of the N-degron pathway is a well-characterized process that negatively regulates flooding tolerance in plants. Here, we determined the role of the PRT6/N-degron pathway in salinity tolerance in Arabidopsis. This study demonstrates that the prt6 mutation enhances salinity tolerance at the germination, seedling, and adult plant stages. Maintenance of chlorophyll content and root growth under high salt in the prt6 mutant was linked with the restricted accumulation of sodium ions (Na+) in shoots and roots of the mutant genotype. The prt6 mutation also stimulated mRNA accumulation of key transcription factors in ABA-dependent and independent pathways of osmotic/salinity tolerance, accompanied by the prominent expression of their downstream genes. Furthermore, the prt6 mutant displayed increased sensitivity to ethylene and brassinosteroids, which can suppress Na+ uptake and promote the expression of stress-responsive genes. This study provides genetic evidence that both salinity and flooding tolerance is coordinated through a common regulatory pathway in Arabidopsis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salinity Stress in Plants and Molecular Responses)
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Open AccessArticle
Bonding Performance of a Hydrophilic Amide Monomer Containing Adhesive to Occlusal and Cervical Dentin
by , , , , and
Materials 2020, 13(21), 4727; - 23 Oct 2020
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the bonding performance of a new one-step self-etching adhesive system containing a novel hydrophilic amide monomer. Clearfil Universal Bond Quick (CUB) and Clearfil Megabond 2 (CMB) were used as the one-step and two-step adhesive systems, respectively. Flat dentin [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the bonding performance of a new one-step self-etching adhesive system containing a novel hydrophilic amide monomer. Clearfil Universal Bond Quick (CUB) and Clearfil Megabond 2 (CMB) were used as the one-step and two-step adhesive systems, respectively. Flat dentin surfaces of human premolars were exposed using #600 SiC (silicon carbide) and bonded with the respective adhesives of each system. The teeth were sectioned to obtain beams (1 mm × 1 mm) after 24 h of water storage. The mean bond strength and standard deviations (MPa) on an occlusal surface were as follows: CUB: 45.9 ± 19.7 and CMB: 67.9 ± 25.3. The values for cervical ones were CUB: 56.0 ± 20.3 and CMB: 67.6 ± 16.0, respectively. In both conditions, the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) value was lower than that of CMB. As seen during the microscopic observation, no adhesive failure was observed after μTBS testing because CUB formed a firm and tight adhesive interface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Regenerative and Restorative Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Polyethylene Nail Brace for Ingrown Toenails Treatment: A Randomized Clinical Trial
by , , , , , , and
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7741; - 23 Oct 2020
Abstract
Background: Onychocryptosis is one of the most prevailing onychopathies and one of the usual reasons for visiting podiatry clinics. In this research, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness of a procedure of nail reeducation technique via a strip of polyethylene in subjects with [...] Read more.
Background: Onychocryptosis is one of the most prevailing onychopathies and one of the usual reasons for visiting podiatry clinics. In this research, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness of a procedure of nail reeducation technique via a strip of polyethylene in subjects with stage I or IIa onychocryptosis, in which pathological toenail curves are present. Methods: This research was a randomized clinical trial (ACTRN12615000834550). The sample was made up of 94 cases of stage I or IIa onychocryptosis, according to the Mozena classification. Briefly, 46 cases were treated with the combination of a spicule technique and nail brace with a polyethylene plastic strip, and 48 were only treated with the spicule technique. Results: The combination of the spicule technique and the nail brace technique with a strip of polyethylene had a significantly lower recurrence rate compared to that achieved with just the spicule technique, twelve months after the beginning of the study (N.S. = 0.000 for α = 0.05). The change in the nail width achieved with the nail brace technique, twelve months after the beginning of the study, was statistically significant (N.S. = 0.000 for α = 0.05). Conclusions: The recurrence rate of the spicule technique alone was significantly higher than the combined technique of spicule with nail brace. A nail brace with a strip of polyethylene reduces the recurrence rate of onychocryptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Foot Disorders and Its Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
An Integral Operational Matrix of Fractional-Order Chelyshkov Functions and Its Applications
by , and
Symmetry 2020, 12(11), 1755; - 23 Oct 2020
Abstract
Fractional differential equations have been applied to model physical and engineering processes in many fields of science and engineering. This paper adopts the fractional-order Chelyshkov functions (FCHFs) for solving the fractional differential equations. The operational matrices of fractional integral and product for FCHFs [...] Read more.
Fractional differential equations have been applied to model physical and engineering processes in many fields of science and engineering. This paper adopts the fractional-order Chelyshkov functions (FCHFs) for solving the fractional differential equations. The operational matrices of fractional integral and product for FCHFs are derived. These matrices, together with the spectral collocation method, are used to reduce the fractional differential equation into a system of algebraic equations. The error estimation of the presented method is also studied. Furthermore, numerical examples and comparison with existing results are given to demonstrate the accuracy and applicability of the presented method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mathematics and Symmetry)
Open AccessArticle
鈥淟et鈥檚 Talk about It鈥濃擡xplicit Discussions as a Way to Reduce the Resistance of Religious Jewish Science Teachers to Learning and Teaching about Evolution: A Case Study
by , and
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 298; - 23 Oct 2020
Abstract
Acknowledging the diverse perceptions about science–religion relationships among learners who come from various religious environments may increase learners’ willingness to learn about evolution. This study is based on a zoology course designed for in-service teachers, which aimed to provide basic scientific knowledge about [...] Read more.
Acknowledging the diverse perceptions about science–religion relationships among learners who come from various religious environments may increase learners’ willingness to learn about evolution. This study is based on a zoology course designed for in-service teachers, which aimed to provide basic scientific knowledge about evolution using the Religious Cultural Competence in Evolution Education framework. The study explores whether learners who were resistant to evolution modify their attitudes and willingness to learn about it, and whether they develop respect toward learners who hold contradicting views. Using qualitative methods, the findings indicate that using the Religious Cultural Competence in Evolution Education framework increased some formerly “resistant” learners’ willingness to learn about evolution and include it in their own teaching, albeit in varying degrees and with various reservations. The learners appreciated the freedom to express their challenges concerning evolution learning or teaching and became more willing to respect opposing perspectives, even though not all the religious learners accepted evolution as an explanation for the development of organisms. This study has international implications for bridging the gap between science and religion, thus reducing resistance to learning and teaching about evolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Curriculum and Instruction)
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Adult Weight Gain on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Its Association with Anthropometric Parameters in the Lean Japanese Population
by , , , , , , and
Diagnostics 2020, 10(11), 863; - 23 Oct 2020
Abstract
Limited data are available on the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its association with adult weight gain (AWG) in the lean population. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of NAFLD and to investigate whether AWG is associated with NAFLD [...] Read more.
Limited data are available on the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its association with adult weight gain (AWG) in the lean population. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of NAFLD and to investigate whether AWG is associated with NAFLD in the lean Japanese population. We retrospectively analyzed patients who underwent abdominal ultrasonography as part of the annual health checkup between January 2019 and December 2019. Participants were classified into two groups: those with AWG ≥ 10 kg (AWG group, n = 497), and those without gain (non-AWG group, n = 3006). To adjust for the confounding effects, we generated 482 pairs using 1:1 propensity score matching. The associations between AWG and NAFLD, anthropometric parameters and NAFLD were investigated using univariate logistic regression analysis. We identified NAFLD in 197 (5.6%) participants. AWG was significantly associated with NAFLD (odds ratio (OR), 1.81; p = 0.003). Waist circumference was significantly associated with NAFLD in both the AWG (OR, 1.24; p < 0.001) and non-AWG groups (OR, 1.17; p < 0.001). The association between body mass index and NAFLD existed in the former group (OR, 1.76; p < 0.001), but was not significant in the latter group. AWG is a risk factor for NAFLD even in the lean Japanese population, and associations between anthropometric parameters and NAFLD become stronger if AWG coexists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pathology and Molecular Diagnostics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Combination of Afatinib and Bevacizumab in Untreated EGFR-Mutated Advanced Lung Adenocarcinoma: A Multicenter Observational Study
by , , , , , , , , , and
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(11), 331; - 23 Oct 2020
Abstract
The efficacy of afatinib in combination with bevacizumab in untreated advanced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated lung adenocarcinoma is currently unclear. We sought to investigate the efficacy of this combination through a multicenter observational analysis. Data for 57 patients with advanced EGFR-mutated lung [...] Read more.
The efficacy of afatinib in combination with bevacizumab in untreated advanced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated lung adenocarcinoma is currently unclear. We sought to investigate the efficacy of this combination through a multicenter observational analysis. Data for 57 patients with advanced EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinoma who received afatinib combined with bevacizumab as first-line therapy at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospitals in Linkou and Kaohsiung and Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital from May 2015 to July 2019 were analyzed. The objective response rate and disease control rate of afatinib combined with bevacizumab therapy were 87.7% and 100%, respectively. In all patients, the median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 23.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) (17.56–29.17)) and 45.9 (95% CI (39.50–53.60)) months, respectively. No statistical significance between exon 19 deletion and L858R mutations was noted in PFS or OS. The most frequent adverse events (AEs) were diarrhea (98.2%) and dermatitis (96.5%), and most AEs were grade 2 or lower and manageable. The combination of afatinib and bevacizumab is an effective therapy for untreated advanced EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinoma with acceptable safety. Future prospective studies focusing on this combination for untreated advanced EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinoma are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment Options and Therapeutics for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer)
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