Ebolaviruses, discovered in 1976, belongs to the Filoviridae
family, which also includes Marburg and Lloviu viruses. They are negative-stranded RNA viruses with six known species identified to date. Ebola virus (EBOV) is a member of Zaire ebolavirus
species and can cause the Ebola virus disease (EVD), an emerging zoonotic disease that results in homeostatic imbalance and multi-organ failure. There are three EBOV outbreaks documented in the last six years resulting in significant morbidity (>32,000 cases) and mortality (>13,500 deaths). The potential factors contributing to the high infectivity of this virus include multiple entry mechanisms, susceptibility of the host cells, employment of multiple immune evasion mechanisms and rapid person-to-person transmission. EBOV infection leads to cytokine storm, disseminated intravascular coagulation, host T cell apoptosis as well as cell mediated and humoral immune response. In this review, a concise recap of cell types targeted by EBOV and EVD symptoms followed by detailed run-through of host innate and adaptive immune responses, virus-driven regulation and their combined effects contributing to the disease pathogenesis has been presented. At last, the vaccine and drug development initiatives as well as challenges related to the management of infection have been discussed.
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