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Special Issue "Development of Nanomaterials and Their Applications in Sensor Detection"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensor Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 August 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Vladimir Pavelyev

Guest Editor
1. Samara University, 443086 Samara, Russia
2. IPSI RAS - Branch of the FSRC 鈥淐rystallography and Photonics鈥 RAS, 443001 Samara, Russia
Interests: microoptics; nanophotonics; nanomaterials; nanotechnologies

Special Issue Information

This Special Issue of Sensors is devoted to reports on recent research based on the utilization of nanomaterials in sensor applications. With the advancement of science and technology at nanoscale, nanostructures of different materials have been studied for different applications. Nanomaterials derive their extraordinary properties from quantum confinement and lattice modifications. A field of sensors relies upon a wide variety of materials and devices that are used to capture physical, chemical or biological stimuli and produce output signals. Development of sensor materials for high selectivity, high stability, and other technical aspects is highly desirable. High chemical reactivity improved electronic and optical properties of nanomaterials make them suitable for sensor applications. In addition to this, the physical properties of nanomaterials can be suitably tuned to get maximum selectivity in sensor applications. These nanomaterials may be used in sensing devices as the active element that captures the stimulus as well as the transducers that are used to convert the change due to stimuli into observable output signals. Some nanomaterials may be used as the components of the circuit used for sensing applications. The performance of sensing materials depends on their microstructural properties, such as morphology, crystalline phase, etc. Therefore, research on different approaches of synthesis of nanomaterials and their utilization in sensing applications is of great importance. Controlled growth and the improved synthesis method of nanomaterials are being explored in order to use these materials in sensor applications. In this issue, several reports are presented on the synthesis of nanomaterials via different approaches and utilization of these materials in sensor applications.

Prof. Dr. Vladimir Pavelyev
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, . Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Palladium-Doped Tin Oxide Nanosensor for the Detection of the Air Pollutant Carbon Monoxide Gas
by and
Sensors 2020, 20(20), 5889; - 17 Oct 2020
Abstract
The exhaust gases from various sources cause air pollution, which is a leading contributor to the global disease burden. Hence, it has become vital to monitor and control the increasing pollutants coming out of the various sources into the environment. This paper has [...] Read more.
The exhaust gases from various sources cause air pollution, which is a leading contributor to the global disease burden. Hence, it has become vital to monitor and control the increasing pollutants coming out of the various sources into the environment. This paper has designed and developed a sensor material to determine the amount of carbon monoxide (CO), which is one of the major primary air pollutants produced by human activity. Nanoparticle-based sensors have several benefits in sensitivity and specificity over sensors made from traditional materials. In this study, tin oxide (SnO2), which has greater sensitivity to the target gas, is selected as the sensing material which selectively senses only CO. Tin oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized from stannous chloride dihydrate chemical compound by chemical precipitation method. Palladium, at the concentration of 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3% by weight, was added to tin oxide and the results were compared. Synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) techniques. XRD revealed the tetragonal structure of the SnO2 nanoparticles and FESEM analysis showed the size of the nanoparticles to be about 7–20 nm. Further, the real-time sensor testing was performed and the results proved that the tin oxide sensor, doped with 0.2% palladium, senses the CO gas more efficiently with greater sensitivity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Arrays Formation of Zinc Oxide Nano-Objects with Varying Morphology for Sensor Applications
by and
Sensors 2020, 20(19), 5575; - 29 Sep 2020
Abstract
The regularities and features of the formation of arrays of zinc oxide nano-objects with varying morphology are determined by CO2 laser processing with intensification of diffusion processes in the solid state of Cu–Zn metallic materials which are selectively oxidizable. In the process [...] Read more.
The regularities and features of the formation of arrays of zinc oxide nano-objects with varying morphology are determined by CO2 laser processing with intensification of diffusion processes in the solid state of Cu–Zn metallic materials which are selectively oxidizable. In the process of laser treatment in air using the synergy of heat exposure and vibrations induced by laser with a force fundamental frequency of 100 Hz, the brass surface of samples is oxidized mainly with the generation of ZnO nanowires. The condition for intensification is the local non-stationary deformation caused by sound waves induced by laser. Upon the initiation of the processes of exfoliation of the initially formed layers on the material surface, apart from a disordered structure, a structure was formed in the central region containing two-dimensional objects made of zinc oxide with characteristic thicknesses of 70–100 nm. Such arrays can provide the potential to create a periodic localized electric field applying direct current, this allows the production of electrically switched diffraction gratings with a variable nature of zones. It has been established that during laser pulse-periodic irradiation on brass, the component of the metal alloy, namely, zinc, will oxidize on the surface in the extent that its diffusion to the surface will be ensured. During laser pulse-periodic heating under conditions of the experiment, the diffusion coefficient was 2–3 times higher than from direct heating and exposure to a temperature of 700 °C. The study of the electrical resistance of the created samples by the contact probe method was performed by the four-point probe method. It was determined that the specific electrical resistance at the center of the sample was 30–40% more than at the periphery. To determine the possibility of using the obtained material based on zinc oxide for the creation of sensors, oxygen was adsorbed on the sample in an oxygen–argon mixture, and then the electrical resistance in the central part was measured. It was found that the adsorbed oxygen increases the electrical resistivity of the sample by 70%. The formation of an oxide layer directly from the metal substrate can solve problem of forming an electrical contact between the gas-sensitive oxide layer and this substrate. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Metal-Organic-Framework FeBDC-Derived Fe3O4 for Non-Enzymatic Electrochemical Detection of Glucose
by , , , , , and
Sensors 2020, 20(17), 4891; - 29 Aug 2020
Abstract
Present-day science indicates that developing sensors with excellent sensitivity and selectivity for detecting early signs of diseases is highly desirable. Electrochemical sensors offer a method for detecting diseases that are simpler, faster, and more accurate than conventional laboratory analysis methods. Primarily, exploiting non-noble-metal [...] Read more.
Present-day science indicates that developing sensors with excellent sensitivity and selectivity for detecting early signs of diseases is highly desirable. Electrochemical sensors offer a method for detecting diseases that are simpler, faster, and more accurate than conventional laboratory analysis methods. Primarily, exploiting non-noble-metal nanomaterials with excellent conductivity and large surface area is still an area of active research due to its highly sensitive and selective catalysts for electrochemical detection in enzyme-free sensors. In this research, we successfully fabricate Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) FeBDC-derived Fe3O4 for non-enzymatic electrochemical detection of glucose. FeBDC synthesis was carried out using the solvothermal method. FeCl2.4H2O and Benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid (H2BDC) are used as precursors to form FeBDC. The materials were further characterized utilizing X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The resulting MOF yields good crystallinity and micro-rod like morphology. Electrochemical properties were tested using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) with a 0.1 M of Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS pH 7.4) solution as the supporting electrolyte. The measurement results show the reduction and oxidation peaks in the CV curve of FeBDC, as well as Fe3O4. Pyrolysis of FeBDC to Fe3O4 increases the peak of oxidation and reduction currents. The Fe3O4 sample obtained has a sensitivity of 4.67 µA mM−1.cm−2, a linear range between 0.0 to 9.0 mM, and a glucose detection limit of 15.70 µM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Synergy of Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide in Amperometric Urea Biosensor: Application for Medical Technologies
by , , , and
Sensors 2020, 20(16), 4496; - 11 Aug 2020
Abstract
Thermally reduced graphene oxide (TRGO) is a graphene-based nanomaterial that has been identified as promising for the development of amperometric biosensors. Urease, in combination with TRGO, allowed us to create a mediator-free amperometric biosensor with the intention of precise detection of urea in [...] Read more.
Thermally reduced graphene oxide (TRGO) is a graphene-based nanomaterial that has been identified as promising for the development of amperometric biosensors. Urease, in combination with TRGO, allowed us to create a mediator-free amperometric biosensor with the intention of precise detection of urea in clinical trials. Beyond simplicity of the technology, the biosensor exhibited high sensitivity (2.3 ± 0.1 µA cm−2 mM−1), great operational and storage stabilities (up to seven months), and appropriate reproducibility (relative standard deviation (RSD) about 2%). The analytical recovery of the TRGO-based biosensor in urine of 101 ÷ 104% with RSD of 1.2 ÷ 1.7% and in blood of 92.7 ÷ 96.4%, RSD of 1.0 ÷ 2.5%, confirmed that the biosensor is acceptable and reliable. These properties allowed us to apply the biosensor in the monitoring of urea levels in samples of urine, blood, and spent dialysate collected during hemodialysis. Accuracy of the biosensor was validated by good correlation (R = 0.9898 and R = 0.9982) for dialysate and blood, utilizing approved methods. The advantages of the proposed biosensing technology could benefit the development of point-of-care and non-invasive medical instruments. Full article
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Other

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Open AccessLetter
Large-Area Thermal Distribution Sensor Based on Multilayer Graphene Ink
by , and
Sensors 2020, 20(18), 5188; - 11 Sep 2020
Abstract
Emergent applications in wearable electronics require inexpensive sensors suited to scalable manufacturing. This work demonstrates a large-area thermal sensor based on distributed thermocouple architecture and ink-based multilayer graphene film. The proposed device combines the exceptional mechanical properties of multilayer graphene nanocomposite with the [...] Read more.
Emergent applications in wearable electronics require inexpensive sensors suited to scalable manufacturing. This work demonstrates a large-area thermal sensor based on distributed thermocouple architecture and ink-based multilayer graphene film. The proposed device combines the exceptional mechanical properties of multilayer graphene nanocomposite with the reliability and passive sensing performance enabled by thermoelectrics. The Seebeck coefficient of the spray-deposited films revealed an inverse thickness dependence with the largest value of 44.7 μV K−1 at 78 nm, which makes thinner films preferable for sensor applications. Device performance was demonstrated by touch sensing and thermal distribution mapping-based shape detection. Sensor output voltage in the latter application was on the order of 300 μV with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 35, thus enabling accurate detection of objects of different shapes and sizes. The results imply that films based on multilayer graphene ink are highly suitable to thermoelectric sensing applications, while the ink phase enables facile integration into existing fabrication processes. Full article
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